References

Anderson, T.J. et al., 1987, Carpal Tunnel Syndrome- Selected References, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health.

Ankrum, D.R., 1996, Viewing Distance at Computer Workstations. Workplace Ergonomics. 2, 5, 10-13.

Ankrum, D.R., 1997, A challenge to eye-level, perpendicular-to-gaze, monitor placement. Proceedings of the 13th Triennial Congress of the International Ergonomics Association, Vol. 5, p. 35-37. Helsinki: Finish Institute of Occupational Health.

Ankrum, D.R., Hansen, E.E., and Nemeth, K.J., 1995, The vertical horopter and the angle of view. In A. Grieco, G. Molteni, B. Piccoli and E. Occhipinti (eds.), Work with Display Units '94. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Ankrum, D.R. and Nemeth, K.J., 1995, April, Posture, Comfort and Monitor Placement. Ergonomics in Design, p. 7-9.

Bielschowsky, A., 1940, Lectures on Motor Anomalies. Dartmouth Publications. Hanover, p.27.

Boorish, I.M., 1970, Clinical Refraction. The Professional Press, Chicago, p. 180.

Burde, R., Feldon, E., 1987, The extraocular muscles: Anatomy, physiology, and pharmacology. Adler's Physiology of the Eye. CV Mosby, St. Louis, p. 95.

Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, 1993, Survey of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses in the U.S.

Chaffin, D.B., 1973, Localized Muscle Fatigue - Definition and Measurement. Journal of Occupational Medicine, 15, 4, 346-354.

Chaffin, D.B., 1991, Occupational Biomechanics. Wiley-Interscience, New York, p. 401.

Chatterjee, D.S., 1987, Repetition strain injury - a recent review. Journal of the Society of Occupational Medicine, 37, 100-105.

Collins, C.C., et al, 1975, Muscle strain during unrestrained human eye movements. Journal of Physiology, London, 245, 351-369.

Dainoff, M.H., Dainoff, M.J., 1986, People and Productivity. Holt, Rinehart and Winston of Canada, Ltd., Toronto, p. 23-26.

Duke - Elder, S., Wybar, K., 1973, Ocular Motility and strabismus. System of Ophthalmology. Henry Kimpton, London, Vol. 6, p. 100.

Ehrlich, D.L., 1987, Near Vision Stress: Vergence Adaption and Accommodative Fatigue. Ophthalmology and Physiological Optics, 7, 4, p. 353-357.

Fisher, R.F., 1977, The force of contraction of the human ciliary muscle during accommodation. Journal of Physiology, London, 270, 51-74.

Grandjean, E., 1987, Ergonomics in Computerized Offices. Taylor & Francis, London, p. 21, 143.

Grandjean, E., et al., 1983, VDT workstation design: preferred settings and their effects. Human Factors, 25, 161-175.

Gunnarsson, E. and Soderberg, I., 1979, Work at a VDT Presenting Textural Information at a Publishing Company: An Inventory of Visual Ergonomic Problems. AMMF, National Board of Occupational Safety and Health, Stockholm. p. 21.

Helmholtz, H., 1962, Helmholtz's Treatise on Physiological Optics. Dover, New York, Vol. 3, pp. 44-45.

Heuer, H., Owens, D., 1989, Vertical gaze direction and the resting posture of the eyes. Perception, 18, 363-377.

Hill, S.G., Kroemer, K.H.E., 1986, Preferred Declination of the Line of Sight. Human Factors, 28, 127-134.

Human Factors Society, 1988, American National Standard for Human Factors Engineering of Visual Display Terminal Workstations (ANSI HFS-100). San Jose, CA; Human Factors Society.

Jampel, R., Shi, D., 1992, The Primary Position of the Eyes, The Resetting Saccade, and the Transverse Visual Head Plane. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 33, 8, 2501-2510.

Jaschinski-Kruza, W., 1988, Visual strain during VDU work: the effect of viewing distance and dark focus. Ergonomics, 31, 10, 1449-1465.

Jaschinski-Kruza, W., 1990, On the preferred viewing distances to screen and document at VDU workplaces. Ergonomics, 33, 8, 1055-1063.

Jaschinski-Kruza, W., 1991, Eyestrain in VDU Users: Viewing Distance and the Resting Position of Ocular Muscles. Human Factors, 33, 1, 69-83.

Kaufman, P.L., 1992, Accommodation and Presbyopia: Neuromuscular and Biophysical Aspects. Adler's Physiology of the Eye. C.V. Mosby, St. Louis, p. 391-411.

Krimsky, E., 1948, The Management of Binocular Imbalance. Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia, p. 101.

Kroemer, K., 1989, Cumulative trauma disorders: Their recognition and ergonomics measures to avoid them. Applied Ergonomics, 20, 4, 274-280.

Krueger, H., 1984, Visual Functions in Offices - Including VDUs (Introductory paper.) Ergonomics and Health in Modern Offices. Taylor & Francis, London.

Lee, K., Swanson, N., Sauter, S., Wickstrom, R., Waikar, A., and Mangum, M., 1992, A review of physical exercises recommended for VDT operators., Applied Ergonomics, 25, 6, 387-408.

Moses, R., 1975, Accommodation. Adler's Physiology of the Eye. CV Mosby, St. Louis. p. 305.

Owens, D.A., 1984, The resting state of the eyes. American Scientist, 72, 378-387.

Owens, D.A., Wolf-Kelly, K., 1987, Near Work, Visual Fatigue, and Variations of Oculomotor Tonus. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 28, 743-749.

Rea, M.S., 1991, Solving the Problem of VDT Reflections. Progressive Architecture, Oct. p. 35-40.

Ripple, P., 1952, Variation of Accommodation in Vertical Directions of Gaze. American Journal of Ophthalmology, 35, 1630-1634.

Rupp, B.A., 1987, Personal communication.

Scobee, R.G., 1952, The Ocuolorotary Muscles. CV Mosby, St. Louis, p. 60, 117-118.

Sheedy, J.E., ed., 1990, Video Display Terminals: Solving the Vision Problems, Optometry-Environmental Optics. Vol. 2, J.B. Lippincott, Philadelphia. P. 1-16.

Sheedy, J.E., 1992, Vision Problems at Visual Display Terminals: A Survey of Optometrists. Journal of The American Optometrist Association, 63, 687-692.

Sotoyama, M. Abe, S., Jonai, H., Villanueva, M.B.G.; and Saito, S. (1997). Improvement in visual comfort of VDT workers from the aspects of vertical gaze direction and tear volume. Proceedings of the 13th Triennial Congress of the International Ergonomics Association, 1997. Vol. 5, p. 59-61. Helsinki: Finish Institute of Occupational Health.

Tychsen, L., 1992, Binocular Vision, Adler's Physiology of the Eye. C.V. Mosby, St. Louis, p. 773-853.

Tsubota, K., Nakamori, K., 1993, Dry Eyes and Video Display Terminals. New England Journal of Medicine, 328, 8, 584.

Tyrrell, R., Leibowitz, H., 1990, The Relation of Vergence Effort to Reports of Visual Fatigue Following Prolonged Near Work. Human Factors, 32, 3, 341-357.